Embase - 1980 to date
Embase is a biomedical and pharmacological database containing bibliographic records with citations, abstracts and indexing derived from biomedical articles in peer reviewed journals, and is especially strong in its coverage of drug and pharmaceutical research. This field guide provides scope of information specific to the Embase database.
Embase contains over 22 million records spanning 1974-present, with over 1 million records added annually. Each record contains the full bibliographic citation, indexing terms, and codes; and 80% of all citations in Embase include author-written abstracts. The Embase journal collection is international with over 7,500 active peer-reviewed journals more than 90 countries.
Broad biomedical scope covering the following areas:
Drug therapy and research, including pharmaceutics, pharmacology and toxicology
Clinical and experimental (human) medicine
Basic biological science relevant to human medicine
Biotechnology and biomedical engineering, including medical devices
Health policy and management, including pharmacoeconomics
Public, occupational and environmental health, including pollution control
Veterinary science, dentistry, and nursing
This database is updated online daily and weekly.
This section lists all the fields in Embase. When a field is searchable, you can limit your search to that field by entering its two-letter field code directly into the search box in this format:
- AB Abstract [Word Indexed]
mitral valve prolapse.ab.
EMBASE includes author-written abstracts when they are available. Approximately 60% of the citations in EMBASE include abstracts. Beginning in 1997, the number of references appears at the end of the abstract.
- AD Correspondence Address [Word Indexed]
The Correspondence Address (AD) field contains the contact information associated with the authors of the document.
- AF All Searchable Fields
The All Searchable Fields (AF) field contains all words included in any field, with the exception of stopwords
- AN Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
The Accession Number (AN) field contains a ten-digit number assigned in EMBASE to uniquely identify a particular record.
- AR Article Number [Phrase Indexed]
The Article Number (AR) field consists of an alphanumeric character string that is assigned to a document by the publisher. The article number will never change. It is a medium for citing/linking to/searching for articles when these do not contain the complete bibliographic information, or it is simply additional information.
- AU Authors [Phrase Indexed]
The Authors (AU) field contains the authors of the article. This field requires a complete match, so use the format "smith j*" , "smith je" or "smith*" (include the quotes). You may find it more convenient to use the Author last name field (.ax) instead
- BS Book Source [Word Indexed]
The Book Series (BS) field contains information relating to the series title of the document as it appears with the publication.
- BT Book Title [Word Indexed]
The Book Title (BT) field contains information relating to the original title and subtitle of the document as it appears with the publication.
- CD CODEN [Phrase Indexed]
The CODEN (CD) field contains a journal CODEN, a 5-digit code such as "AJDCA" which uniquely identifies a journal title.
- CF Conference Information [Word Indexed]
The Conference Information (CF) field contains supplementary information about a conference such as its location. Search for single, descriptive words in the Conference Information field, such as japan.
- CN Clinical Trial Number [Word Indexed]
The Clinical Trial Number field (CN) field contains unique numbers associated with the record from the National Library of Medicine, International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register and The European EudraCT Database.
- CP Country of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
The Country of Publication (CP) field contains the name of the country in which a journal was published (such as United States).
- CR Copyright [Word Indexed]
The Copyright (CR) field contains the copyright information associated with an article.
- DM Device Manufacturer [Phrase Indexed]
The Device Manufacturer Name (DM) field contains the full name of the manufacturer of a drug or device discussed in an article. Manufacturer names are listed in their brief form, for example, Lilly for "Eli Lilly." This field displays with the Device Trade Name (DV) field in the citation.
- DO Digital Object Identifier (DOI) [Word Indexed]
The DOI (DO) field contains the Digital Object Identifier, a unique and persistent digital identification code for any object of intellectual property. The DOI itself consists of two parts: a prefix which is assigned to each publisher by the administrative DOI agency, for example, 10.1097, and a suffix which is assigned by the publisher and can be any code that the publisher chooses, for example, 00045415-200111000-00002. The full DOI appears as such: 10.1097/00045415-200111000-00002. You can search the DO field by entering either the prefix in quotes ("10.1097".do.) or the entire doi value in quotes ("10.1097/00004850-200609000-00008".do.).
- DP Date of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
15 oct 2005.dp.
The Date of Publication (DP) field consists of the date of publication for a citation. It is searchable in the format DD MMM YYYY, for example, 23 FEB 2002. This field usually displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
- DV Device Trade Name [Word Indexed]
The Device Trade Name (DV) indicates the device trade associated with an article and the companies who manufacture the medical equipment.
- EC Embase Section Headings [Phrase Indexed]
The EMBASE Section Headings (EC) field contains the EMCLAS classification scheme for drugs, adverse reaction titles and pharmacy.
- ED Editors [Phrase Indexed]
The Editor (ED) field contains the list of editors associated with the article. The format for editors is last name followed by one or more initials: Smith JC or Smith J. If a single initial could not be transliterated with one letter, two or more letters may be used. Occasionally a name will include the full first name.
- EM Entry Week [Phrase Indexed]
The Entry Week (EM) field contains the date (year and week) in which a document was added to Embase.
- EN Electronic ISSN [Phrase Indexed]
The Electronic ISSN (EN) field contains the electronic International Standard Serial Number (eISSN) for the journal in which the article was published. Each journal may have an ISSN, an eISSN, or both. However when there is only an eISSN available it is searchable in the ISSN index and displays in the Electronic ISSN (EN) field. Like the ISSN, it appears as an 8-digit number, separated by a hyphen: 1029-0362.
- FS Floating subheading [Phrase indexed]
ubheadings, or "link terms" are qualifiers added to EMTREE subject headings to refine their meaning. Terms such as "adverse drug reaction" or "drug toxicity," when combined with an EMTREE term, give a very precise idea of what an article covers. The Floating Subheading (FS) field contains the 2-letter link terms, such as "AN" for drug analysis
Code Floating Code Floating Code Floating
Subheading Subheading Subheading
ae Adverse Drug Reaction th Therapy ip Intraperitoneal Drug Administration
ct Clinical Trial dr Drug Resistance pl Intrapleural Drug Administration
co Complication dm Disease Management sp Intraspinal Drug Administration
cn Congenital Disorder pe Pharmacoeconomics tl Intrathecal Drug Administration
di Diagnosis bd Buccal Drug Administration tr Intratracheal Drug Administration
ad Drug Administration ei Epidural Drug Administration tu Intratumoral Drug Administration
an Drug Analysis ih Inhalational Drug Administration ty Intratympanic Drug Administration
cb Drug Combination ia Intraarterial Drug Administration ur Intraurethral Drug Administration
cm Drug Comparison ar Intraarticular Drug Administration ut Intrauterine Drug Administration
cr Drug Concentration br Intrabronchial Drug Administration va Intravaginal Drug Administration
dv Drug Development bu Intrabursal Drug Administration iv Intravenous Drug Administration
do Drug Dose cl Intracameral Drug Administration ve Intravesical Drug Administration
it Drug Interaction ic Intracardiac Drug Administration vi Intravitreal Drug Administration
dt Drug Therapy ca Intracavernous Drug Administration po Oral Drug Administration
to Drug Toxicity ce Intracerebral Drug Administration pa Parenteral Drug Administration
ec Endogenous Compound cv Intracerebroventricular Drug Administration oc Periocular Drug Administration
ep Epidemiology ci Intracisternal Drug Administration rc Rectal Drug Administration
et Etiology dl Intradermal Drug Administration rp Regional perfusion
pr Pharmaceutics du Intraduodenal Drug Administration rb Retrobulbar Drug Administration
pk Pharmacokinetics ig Intragastric Drug Administration cj Subconjunctival Drug Administration
pd Pharmacology il Intralesional Drug Administration sc Subcutaneous Drug Administration
pc Prevention ly Intralymphatic Drug Administration sb Sublabial Drug Administration
rt Radiotherapy im Intramuscular Drug Administration li Sublingual Drug Administration
rh Rehabilitation na Intranasal Drug Administration tp Topical Drug Administration
si Side Effect io Intraocular Drug Administration td Transdermal Drug Administration
su Surgery os Intraosseous Drug Administration
- HW Heading Words [Word Indexed]
Sometimes you may wish to retrieve every EMTREE subject heading that includes a particular word; this is done by searching the single word in the Heading Word (HW) field.
- IB ISBN [Phrase Indexed]
The ISBN (IB) field contains the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) for a book or monographic publication.
- IN Institution [Word Indexed]
The Institution (IN) field contains the primary author's affiliation, which is usually the source for a reprint of the article. This information is not standardized and often contains abbreviations. Enter the single most descriptive word in an institution (harvard, rather than university). Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.
- IP Issue Part [Word Indexed]
The Issue Part field (IP) contains the issue and/or part for a particular volume of a journal.
- IS ISSN [Phrase Indexed]
The ISSN (IS) field contains the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for the journal in which an article was published. Each journal may have an ISSN, an eISSN, or both. However when there is only an eISSN available it is searchable in the ISSN index and displays in the Electronic ISSN (EN) field. It appears as an 8-digit number, separated by a hyphen: 0028-4793.
- JA Journal Abbreviation [Word Indexed]
The Journal Abbreviation (JA) field contains the abbreviated title of an individual journal issue.
- JI Journal Issue [Word Indexed]
The Journal Issue (JI) field contains the title of an individual journal issue.
- JN Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
"zoology analysis of complex systems".jn.
The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which the article was published. This field requires a complete match so use the format "british journal of nursing", surgery (for a one word title) or surgery* (for titles beginning with...). You may find it more convenient to use the Journal Word field (.jw) instead. Journal names are indexed as phrases
- JW Journal Word [Word Indexed]
The Journal Word (JW) field contains individual words from every journal name in EMBASE.
- LG Language [Phrase Indexed]
The Language (LG) field contains the language(s) of publication of an article. The language name will appear as the full language name. For a complete list of languages, refer to the Languages limit
- MF Drug Manufacturer Name [Phrase Indexed]
The Drug Manufacturer Name (MF) field contains the full name of the manufacturer of a drug or device discussed in an article. Manufacturer names are listed in their brief form, for example, Lilly for "Eli Lilly." The Drug Manufacturer Name field will display in the Drug Trade Name and Manufacturer (TN) field.
- MS Molecular Sequence Number [Word Indexed]
The Molecular Sequence Number (MS) field contains an acronym for a source of molecular sequence data (for example, Genbank) and a sequence accession number documented by the source.
- OT Original Title [Word Indexed]
The Original Title (OT) field contains all non-English titles in the original language. If the original title was in a non-Roman alphabet, then the OT is transliterated. Omit common articles when searching a foreign language: heure not l'heure.
- PB Publisher [Word Indexed]
The Publisher (PB) field contains the publisher name for a book or other non-journal publication.
- PG Page [Phrase Indexed]
The Page (PG) field contains the page on which a journal article begins. Often a journal title combined with the beginning page number is enough to locate a citation.
- PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
The Publication Type (PT) field contains one of the following indicating the form of the literature indexed.
The Publication Type is also available as a limit.
- RF Number of References [Phrase Indexed]
The Number of References (RF) field contains the number of references that appear at the end of the document.s
- RN CAS Registry Number [Phrase Indexed]
The CAS Registry Number (RN) field contains the Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number for a compound mentioned in an article. Registry numbers appear and are searched with hyphens (50-07-0).
- SH Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]
The Subject Headings(SH) field contains the EMTREE Thesaurus terms used by EMBASE indexers to describe the content of an article. EMTREE terms are organized in a hierarchy, or "tree" structure. EMTREE terms should be searched as they appear in the published EMTREE or in our Tree display. All EMTREE terms and associated terms are indexed in the Subject Headings field.
- SL Summary Language [Phrase Indexed]
The Summary Language (SL) field contains the language(s) of the summaries printed in the original document.
- SO Source
The Source (SO) field includes a display of all the basic information needed to locate a citation, including the Article Number (AR), Journal Name (JN), Publisher (PB), Volume (VO), Issue Part (IP), Page (PG), Year of Publication (YR), and Conference Information (CF) if applicable.
- TI Title [Word Indexed]
The Title (TI) field contains the English language version of a title. For documents which are not written in English, the original or transliterated title appears in a separate field, Original Title (OT). The title sometimes includes notes about the article such as an indication of language.
- TN Drug Trade Name [Phrase Indexed]
The Drug Trade Name (TN) field contains both the trade name and manufacturer for a drug or device discussed in an article.
- TW Textword (AB, TI, TN)
mitral valve prolapse.tw.
The Textword (TW) field is an alias for all of the fields in a database which contain text words and which are appropriate for a subject search. The Textword field in EMBASE includes Title (TI), Abstract (AB), and Drug Trade Name (TN).
- UR URL [Word Indexed]
The URL (UR) field will contain the URL information for internet-only journals.
- VO Volume [Word Indexed]
The Volume (VO) field consists of the volume and issue of a serial publication.
- YR Year of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
The Year of Publication (YR) field contains the year in which an article or monograph was published. The full year appears in the document and can be searched using a single 4-digit number.
You can use the following limits to restrict your search in EMBASE.
A limit to Abstracts will restrict retrieval to EMBASE documents which include an abstract. About 60% of the documents in EMBASE contain abstracts.
Limiting to Clinical Queries will restrict retrieval clinically sound studies. There are nine categories provided, and the emphasis may be Sensitive (the most relevant articles but probably some less relevant ones), Specific (mostly relevant articles but probably omitting a few), or Optimized (the combination of terms that optimizes the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity).
These filters, based on the work of R. Brian Haynes MD, PhD et al. of the Health Information Research Unit (HIRU) at McMaster University, are intended for clinicians. A detailed explanation of the strategies behind these limits can be found at http://hiru.mcmaster.ca/hiru/hedges/.
A limit to English will restrict retrieval to articles which are written in the English language. Articles written in another language but which have an English abstract will be eliminated by a limit to English.
A limit to Experimental Subjects will restrict retrieval to various specific animal types used as experimental subjects.
A limit to Female will restrict retrieval to clinical or experimental studies on females, whether human or animal. The designation "female" includes in vitro studies on human or animal tissue or cells.
A limit to Human will restrict retrieval to all items concerning humans, including clinical articles and studies on humans as experimental subjects, or involving human tissue, cells or cell components.
Human Age Groups
A limit by Human Age Groups will restrict retrieval to any of a number of broad age categories indexed in EMBASE.
Infant <to one year>
Embryo <first trimester>
Preschool Child <1 to 6 years>
Child <unspecified age>
Adolescent <13 to 17 years>
School Child <7 to 12 years>
Aged <65+ years>
Adult <18 to 64 years>
A limit to Language will restrict retrieval to any of the languages indexed in EMBASE. If you choose Languages... you will be presented with a list of languages from which to select.
New documents are added to EMBASE every month. If you limit to Latest Update you will restrict retrieval to documents which were added to the database in the most recent database update.
A limit to Male will restrict retrieval to clinical or experimental studies on males, whether human or animal. The designation "male" includes in vitro studies on human or animal tissue or cells.
A limit to Priority Journals will restrict retrieval to major journals which receive priority in indexing. Priority journals comprise approximately one-third of the EMBASE collection.
A limit to Publication Types will restrict retrieval to any of the selected article types such as:
A limit to Publication Year will restrict retrieval to a publication year. After you chose Publication Year... you will be prompted to enter a year. Use the 4-digit form of year.
Routes of Drug Administration
Routes of Drug Administration are the various ways in which drugs may be administered, such as "intramuscular" or "regional perfusion." If you choose Routes of Drug Administration... you will be presented with a comprehensive list from which to select.