Cinahl - 1981 to date
The Cinahl® database is a comprehensive and authoritative source of information for nurses, allied health professionals, and others interested in health care.
Cinahl covers all aspects of nursing and allied health disciplines. Seventeen allied health disciplines are covered: cardiopulmonary technology, dental hygiene, emergency services, medical/laboratory technology, the medical assisting, athletic training, occupational therapy, optometry, physical therapy and rehabilitation, the physician's assistant, radiologic technology, respiratory therapy, social service in health care, speech-language pathology, nutrition and dietetics, audiology and surgical technology.
Journals from biomedicine, alternative therapy, health sciences, librarianship, health promotion/education, and consumer health are also scanned for relevant articles.
Cited references from nursing and allied health journals have been included as Cinahl has received permission - starting in 1994. Cinahl's annually updated thesaurus is adapted from the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). There are over 4000 unique nursing and allied health subject headings.
This section lists all the searchable fields in CINAHL. Limit a search to one field by entering its two-letter field code directly into the search box in this format:
term.code For example:
(To search for occurrences of depression in reference titles)
When a field is phrase indexed, enter your search term in "quotation marks" to get full results. Use an asterisk to truncate the search term if you do not know the full term for the field. For example
The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter code.
- AA Abstract Available [Phrase indexed]
Performs an exact search for the value Y or N. Y indicates that the records have an abstract available. Note that you can also use Limits to restrict a search to references with abstracts
- AB Abstract [Word indexed]
Performs a keyword search of the abstract summaries
- AG Age Group [Word Indexed]
Aged 80 and Over.ag
Searches for words within the age groups identified in a document. You can also use limits to restrict a search to references related to specific age groups.
- AI Literacy Level [Word Indexed]
Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level 9.6.ai
Searches for a specified literacy level.
- AN Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
Performs an exact search for an article's unique identificaton number.
- AR Author Phrase [Phrase Indexed]
Performs an exact search for an article's author, in the format of last name, first name, and middle initial if available.
- AU Author [Word Indexed]
Performs a keyword search for any authors of an article.
- BG Bibliography [Word Indexed]
Searches the title and citation information of the bibliographic reference.
- CA Corporate Author [Word Indexed]
Name of the corporate author if the document was not authored by individuals.
- CAF Author affiliation [Word indexed]
Performs a keyword search of the article"s author affiliations
- CF Cochrane Record Flag [Phrase Indexed]
Y (for Yes) searches for records from the Cochrane Library.
- CH Cochrane AN [Phrase Indexed]
"1 computer disk for IBM-PC or compatibles".ch
Searches for unique identifiers for records in the Cochrane Library.
- CN Record Features [Word Indexed]
Table of Contents.cn
List of features that are part of the specific record. Some records contain a searchable list of features within the record.
- CO Contributor [Word Indexed]
Lists individuals who contributed to a work, but who are not principal authors. Searches article in the format last name followed by one or more initials.
- CR Commentary [Word Indexed]
Citations for published comments or responses to this article.
- CT Gender [Phrase Indexed]
CINAHL subject headings that specify particular aspects such as gender; values consist of the following: Gender; Male; Female. You can also use limits to restrict a search to references tagged for gender.
- DE Subject [Phrase Indexed]
Performs an exact search of the heading descriptors listed in the records. You can also use descriptors (or subject headings) in a search by using Map to thesaurus.
- DF Description Field [Word Indexed]
May contain information about the publication or describe a protocol standard or website.
- DN Dissertation Number [Word Indexed]
Searches the exact Dissertation Order Number.
- DT Date of Publication [Date Indexed]
Performs an exact search for the date of publication of an article into the database in YYYYMMDD format.
- ED Editor [Word Indexed]
Searches editor names in the format last name followed by one or more initials.
- EM Entry Date [Date Indexed]
Performs an exact search for the date of entry of an article into the database in YYYYMMDD format.
- FM Format Full Text [Phrase Indexed]
Performs an exact search for an article's type of full text. The searchable values and what they indicate are: T (HTML full text); C (Embedded image in the full text; P (PDF document)
- FR References Available [Phrase Indexed]
Performs an exact search for the value Y or N. Y indicates that the articles contain references.
- FT Full Text Available [Phrase Indexed]
Performs an exact search for the value Y or N. Y indicates that the records have full text available.
- GI Grant Information [Word Indexed]
Searches funding information including the institution(s), and grant number if available.
- IB ISBN [Phrase Indexed]
0-323-00996-4.ib or 0323009964.ib
Performs an exact search for a publication's International Standard Book Number; can be searched with or without the dash.
- IN Instrumentation [Word Indexed]
Searches words in the instrumentation field which includes statistical instruments discussed in an article.
- IP Issue [Phrase Indexed]
Performs an exact search for a publication's issue number.
- IR Supplement Title [Word Indexed]
ACP Journal Club.ir
Searches the words in the title of a journal supplement.
- IS ISSN [Phrase Indexed]
0028-4793.is or 00284793.is
Performs an exact search for a publication's International Standard Serial Number; can be searched with or without the dash.
- IT Supplement Title [Word Indexed]
The Life You Save....it
Searches words in a title of supplementary issue.
- JN Publication [Phrase Indexed]
Performs an exact keyword search for the journal name of the article.
- JT Journal Title Abbreviation [Word Indexed]
- JT Acad Nurse
Searches words in the journal title abbreviation.
- LA Language [Phrase Indexed]
Searches the language of publication of an article.
- LE Legal [Word Indexed]
Searches for legal cases found in indexed materials. This field can list the names of the parties, court case number, and possibly the place, name of court, and the year.
- MH Exact Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]
arm/su.mh or arm--surgery*.mh
Searches the exact CINAHL Plus with Full Text CINAHL subject heading; searches both major and minor headings. May use qualifier abbreviations (also captures tertiary headings) or spelled with formatted dashes (truncate to capture items with tertiary headings). You can also use subject headings in a search by using Map to thesaurus.
- MJ Word in Major Subject Headings [Word Indexed]
Searches words in the major CINAHL subject headings or core concepts, including subheading words or two letter subheading codes. You can also use subject headings by using map to thesaurus and selecting the Major checkbox when you make your term selection from the thesaurus page.
- MM Exact Major Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]
Drug Resistance/EV.mm or Drug.mm
Searches the exact CINAHL Plus with Full Text CINAHL subject heading as major concept of the Resistance--evaluation article. May use qualifier abbreviations (also captures tertiary headings) or spelled with formatted dashes (truncate to capture items with tertiary headings). You can also use subject headings by using map to thesaurus and selecting the Major checkbox when you make your term selection from the thesaurus page.
- MW Heading Word [Word Indexed]
infections.mw or "EV".mw
Searches words in a CINAHL Plus with Full Text CINAHL Subject Heading; searches Major Headings, Minor Headings, and Keywords (Terms in Process), including subheading words or two letter subheading codes.
- MX Exclude MEDLINE PMID [Phrase Indexed]
Excludes records that include the MEDLINE PMID. "Y" excludes the PMID records; "N" selects records with a PMID. Note: there is also an Exclude MEDLINE PMID checkbox limiter.
- NM Name [Word Indexed]
Searches words in the author, corporate author, named person, contributor, or editor fields.
- NP Named Person [Word Indexed]
Searches biography names for a person discussed in the source document in the format last name followed by one or more initials.
- NT Notes [Word Indexed]
Performs a keyword search for words within the notes and conference notes fields.
- OS Original Study [Word Indexed]
Fiore LD, Ezekowitz MD.os
Searches for words within the original study information, which may include author, title, and source. Accession numbers may be included to reference original articles.
- PB Publisher [Word Indexed]
Performs a keyword search of the article's publisher information.
- PD Publication Date [Word Indexed]
2000 Mar.pd or 2000 Jul 31.pd or 2000 Fall.pd
Searches the date as published in text format, i.e., month or season. See also the 'DT' tag.
- PF Exclude Pre-CINAHL [Phrase Indexed]
Y.pf or N.pn
A search for Y.pf will exclude all Pre-CINAHL content. A search for N.pf will search only within Pre-CINAHL content.
- PG Number of Pages [Number Indexed]
Searches for the total number of pages.
- PM MEDLINE PMID [Phrase Indexed]
The National Library of Medicine's PubMED article identifier (PMID). Available when a CINAHL record has been matched to the same item as a MEDLINE record.
- PP Pagination [Word Indexed]
12.pp or 19-23.pp or 23.pp
Searches first, last, or page range of an article. See also the 'SP' tag.
- PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
Performs an exact search for a record's document type. Note: When searching the descriptive text of a publication type, it is necessary to use quotation marks if the description contains a Boolean operator (AND, OR, NOT), e.g. PT "Questions and Answers".
- PY Publication Year [Date Indexed]
1977.py or 2002-2004.py
Performs an exact search for the publication year of the article; can be used in date range searching.
- RD Revised Date [Date Indexed]
Searches the last revision date in YYYYMMDD format.
- RF Number of References [Word Indexed]
References site at the end of the article in select nursing and allied health journals are included.
- RP Report Number [Word Indexed]
Pamphlet G-142.rp or g-142.rp
Searches for the report number.
- RV Peer Review [Phrase Indexed]
Performs an exact search for the value Y or N. Y indicates that the articles are peer-reviewed. There is also a limit available to restrict a search to peer reviewed references.
- RW Review [Word Indexed]
Searches for words within the information in the review field.
- SB Journal Subset [Word Indexed]
Searches the journal subset. There is also a limit available to restrict searches to particular subsets.
- SC Special Interest [Word Indexed]
Searches the special interest current awareness categories. Note: When searching the descriptive text of a special interest category, it is necessary to use quotation marks if the description contains a Boolean operator (AND, OR, NOT), e.g. SC "Pain and Pain Management". There is also a limit available to restrict searches to particular special interests.
- SE Series Title [Word Indexed]
Searches for words within the series title field.
- SI Serial Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
Searches the exact serial identifier or serial unique identifier number assigned by the NLM.
- SO Publication Name [Word Indexed]
Performs a keyword search for the journal name of the article.
- SP Start Page [Phrase Indexed]
Performs an exact search for an article's starting page number.
- ST Series Title [Phrase Indexed]
Searches for the exact series title for books, pamphlets and journals.
- SU Subject Heading [Word Indexed]
Performs a keyword search on all the subject fields in the record.
- TC Table of Contents [Word Indexed]
Searches within the table-of-contents for text for author, title of item, references, abstract, and pagination of journal articles or chapters.
- TI Title [Word Indexed]
Searches keywords in a record's English and non-English title field.
- TX All Text [Word Indexed]
Performs a keyword search of all the database's searchable fields. Using the TX field code will cause the search to look for the keyword in the full text as well as the citation record.
- VI Volume [Phrase Indexed]
Performs an exact search for a publication's volume number.
- YR Year of Publication [Date Indexed]
Performs an exact search for the publication year of the article; can be used in date range searching. You can also use limits to specify a year or range of years for a search.
CINAHL provide guidance on this limit available in the database:
Evidence based practice limiter
The Evidence-based practice journal subset is applied to articles from evidence based practice journals (including Cochrane), as well as articles about evidence based practice, research articles (including systematic reviews, clinical trials, meta analyses, qualitative studies), commentaries on research studies (applying practice to research), case studies if they meet the criteria of the use of research and/or evidence based practice terms.